Goddess Saraswati is one of three main goddesses (Saraswati, Lakshmi, Durga/Kali/Parvati) often known as “tridevi” as per Indian Mythology. The revered great goddess often known as the goddess associated with learning and art. Add to that she is recoganized as the total sum of sound/tidal/wave energy in the Universe in her supreme primordial form i.e. Mahasaraswati.
In the Vedas, Saraswati was a water deity and was revered for purifying, fertilizing and enriching powers. The next stage in Saraswati mythological history was her identification with the holy rituals performed on the banks of the river Saraswati. She is said to have invented Sanskrit, known as the mother of all languages, of scriptures and scholarship. It is also believed that it was her who discovered some or Amrita. According to the Matsya Purana, Saraswati evolved from the mouth of Brahma on the 5th day of lunar month i.e. Magha The day is known as Vasant Panchami. Such was her beauty and grace that Brahma pursued her. As she fled in different directions a head appeared and so Brahma is attributed with five heads. She was the most unique creation of Brahma. The moon and the lotus associated with Saraswati are both symbols of eternal womanhood. Some of the many mythological stories connected with Saraswati have interesting sociological interpretations. The gods and the demons by the mutual agreement decided to churn the ocean for the Amrit or the elixir of life. Mainak Mountain was used as the churning rod and Basuki – a python, as the churning rope. When Lakshmi and then Lord Dhanvantri appeared with the Amrit kumbha both gods and demons wanted the elixir. Mohini, the Feminine form of Lord Vishnu with her exquisite beauty lured away the asuras or the demons. As the gods were drinking the Amrit, Rahu and Ketu, two asuras saw them and slipped with the gods. As they drank the Amrit, which would make them immoral like the gods, Vishnu detected them. He immediately cut off their heads. The two enraged asuras swallowed the sun and the moon, but could not retain them as their throats were cut. This led to the origin of solar and lunar eclipse. Saraswati, who was instrumental in helping the gods to be immortal, was established in the heaven as the Goddess Saraswati. The Gods and the Gandharvas both wanted the Soma Ras. It was again Saraswati who with her beauty and grace lured and so exhausted the Gandharvas that they could not acquire the Soma Ras which naturally went to the gods.The Aryans fought with the non – Aryan Comi tribe (tribal dominance among the Aryans) like Nished, Sabar and Pulindar on the banks of the river Saraswati. At the request of Vishnu, Saraswati disappeared underground and again reappeared in far of Rajasthan. The tribes were thus deprived of the life -saving water. They were forced to abandon the area. In both cases we see the importance of the river Saraswati in Aryan life and how Saraswati was used to deprive the weak of water, without which life is impossible. Saraswati is known as Prithudhar (subjugator of the Aryans).
Vashishtha and Vishwamitra, the two sages, were both violently opposed to each other. Vishwamitra ordered the river Saraswati to wash away Vashishtha along with all he possessed. Saraswati refused to comply with his command. To punish Saraswati, he turned the water of the river to blood. At the behest of Shiva, the two sages became amicable and once again there was pure water in the river of Saraswati. In Eastern India, particularly Orissa and Bengal, Saraswati has been absorbed into their culture. She has been given the mantle of daughter of Parvati and is treated as a daughter. History tells us that the Aryans came to India through the Khyber pass and settled in Punjab, Haryana and North Rajasthan. Saraswati was one of the seven holy rivers flowing through modern Punjab, Haryana and North Rajasthan. The mythological background of Saraswati shows the importance of the river Saraswati in the life of the Aryans settled along her river banks. Sociologically the River Saraswati was an important factor in ancient civilization. She is therefore a part of the fertility cult. The Aryans who lived along the banks of the river were pastoral and rural. All early development took place on the river bank. Consequently Saraswati came to be venerated as a symbol of knowledge. It is evident that the upper strata of society used their superior knowledge and expertise to deprive the ignorant lower half of society. The story of Kalidas has been built around Saraswati. There was a proud and learned princess who rejected all suitors who could not match her knowledge. The pundits in anger planned to marry her off to a fool. They saw a man cutting the branch on which he was sitting and decided he was the ideal fool for the princess. Kalidas was presented to the princess as a man of wisdom who only spoke in signs. The pundits answered the entire princess’s question by interpreting Kalidas’s signs. The two were married but on the wedding night the princess realized she had been duped. She kicked Kalidas out of her bed. He with sorrow and shame went to commit suicide. The Goddess Saraswati appeared and asked him to take a dip in the river. As he emerged from the river, Kalidas was transformed. He began to recite verses in praise of the Goddess. Unfortunately for him, he began to praise her beauty not from her feet upwards but from her breasts downwards. Saraswati in anger cursed Kalidas for his audacity. He would die in an ignonimous place.